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The Bell System Technical Journal (1922-1983)

The scientific discoveries and technological innovations produced by Bell System research and engineering were critical not only to the evolution of global telecommunications but, more widely, they had a considerable impact on the technological base of the global economy and, indeed, on our daily lives.



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Bell System Technical Journal, 23: 3. July 1944 pp 282-332. Mathematical Analysis of Random Noise. (Rice, S.O.)
Topics: random, noise, probability, function, average, theorem, spectrum, interval, density, mathematical,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 30: 1. January 1951 pp 50-64. Prediction and Entropy of Printed English. (Shannon, C.E.)
Topics: entropy, prediction, text, frequencies, probabilities, probability, letters, letter, rectangular,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 6. July-August 1978 pp 1899-1904. UNIX Time-Sharing System: Forward. (McIlroy, M.D.; Pinson, E.N.; Tague, B.A.)
Topics: unix, system, operating, programs, bell, programming, software, tools, language, program, operating...
Bell System Technical Journal, 28: 4. October 1949 pp 656-715. Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems. (Shannon, C.E.)
Topics: key, secrecy, message, systems, probabilities, system, equivocation, cryptogram, messages, cipher,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 37: 3. May 1958 pp 711-718. Measurement of Sheet Resistivities with the Four-Point Probe. (Smits, F.M.)
Topics: resistivities, resistivity, probe, infinite, voltage, finite, measurement, sheet, sample,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 28: 3. July 1949 pp 435-489. The Theory of p-n Junctions in Semiconductors and p-n Junction Transistors. (Shockley, W.)
Topics: current, holes, transition, diffusion, equation, potential, recombination, hole, electron,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 3. July 1948 pp 379-423. A Mathematical Theory of Communication. (Shannon, C.E.)
Topics: log, probability, channel, entropy, source, probabilities, sequences, symbols, discrete, sequence,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 6. July-August 1978 pp 1905-1929. The UNIX Time-Sharing System. (Ritchie, D.M.; Thompson, K.)
Topics: file, system, unix, user, program, files, directory, command, device, programs, operating system,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 29: 2. April 1950 pp 147-160. Error Detecting and Error Correcting Codes. (Hamming, R.W.)
Topics: code, error, codes, positions, minimum, single, correcting, parity, check, detecting, code points,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 13: 4. October 1934 pp 532-579. The Electromagnetic Theory of Coaxial Transmission Lines and Cylindrical Shields. (Schelkunoff, S.A.)
Topics: impedance, coaxial, electromagnetic, electromotive, surface, conductor, cylindrical, equations,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 4 October 1948 pp 623-656. A Mathematical Theory of Communication (Shannon, C.E.)
Topics: entropy, log, ensemble, probability, functions, power, noise, theorem, function, continuous,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 39: 4 July 1960 pp 745-808. The Theory and Design of Chirp Radars (Klauder, J.R.; Price, A.C.; Darlington, S.; Albersheim, W.J.)
Topics: signal, chirp, pulse, frequency, network, weighting, amplitude, radars, output, linear, system...
Bell System Technical Journal, 7: 3. July 1928 pp 535-563. Transmission of Information. (Hartley, R.V.L.)
Topics: transmission, selections, symbols, wave, steady, transmitted, system, frequency, technical journal,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 39: 4 July 1960 pp 995-1012. Human Factors Engineering Studies of the Design and Use of Pushbutton Telephone Sets (Deininger, R.L.)
Topics: keying, pushbutton, telephone, button, studies, interdigital, key, characteristics, contact, keyed,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 3: 2. April 1924 pp 324-346. Certain Factors Affecting Telegraph Speed. (Nyquist, H.)
Topics: wave, current, signal, rectangular, telegraph, voltage, frequency, codes, morse, sine, technical...
Bell System Technical Journal, 8: 4. October 1929 pp 613-631. A Method of Sampling Inspection. (Dodge, H.F.; Romig, H.G.)
Topics: inspection, sampling, tolerance, average, method, defective, acceptance, sample, minimum, pieces,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 6. July-August 1978 pp 1947-1969. UNIX Time-Sharing System: A Retrospective. (Ritchie, D.M.)
Topics: system, unix, file, files, user, bell, program, programs, device, operating, virtual address,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 42: 6. November 1963 pp 2839-2847. Spectral Characteristics of Digit-Stimulating Speech Sounds. (Borenstein, D.P.)
Topics: xxxxxxxx, xxxxx, xxxxxx, iii, ixxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, speech, xxxx, xxx, ixxxxxxxxxxxxxxx...
Bell System Technical Journal, 24: 1. January 1945 pp 46-156. Mathematical Analysis of Random Noise . (Rice, S.O.)
Topics: noise, probability, random, function, sin, journal, spectrum, frequency, density, band, random...
Bell System Technical Journal, 36: 3. May 1957 pp 593-626. Radio Propagation Fundamentals. (Bullington, Kenneth)
Topics: transmission, antenna, frequency, radio, diffraction, loss, propagation, fading, signal, median,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 20: 4. October 1941 pp 415-433. The History of Electrical Resonance. (Blanchard, Julian)
Topics: resonance, electrical, patent, circuit, spark, leyden, condenser, alternating, discharge, current,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 35: 4. July 1956 pp 917-926. A New Interpretation of Information Rate. (Kelly, J.L., Jr.)
Topics: bets, gambler, log, transmitted, exponential, probability, rate, symbol, transmission,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 25: 2. April 1946 pp 167-348. The Magnetron as a Generator of Centimeter Waves. (Fisk, J.B.; Hagstrum, H.D.; Hartman, P.L.)
Topics: magnetron, resonator, frequency, anode, output, magnetrons, mode, cathode, magnetic, circuit,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 13: 1. January 1934 pp 1-18. Stabilized Feedback Amplifiers. (Black, H.S.)
Topics: feedback, amplifier, gain, amplifiers, output, modulation, amplification, stability, variations,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 61: 9. November 1982 pp 2677-2702. D4 Digital Channel Bank Family: The SLC-96 System. (Cho, Y.S.; Olson, J.W.; Williamson, D.H.)
Topics: system, channel, digital, remote, alarm, terminal, loop, battery, test, cot, bank system, pair...
Bell System Technical Journal, 34: 5. September 1955 pp 1045-1079. A Method for Synthesizing Sequential Circuits. (Mealy, George H.)
Topics: circuit, circuits, input, method, table, rule, combination, sequential, equivalence, synthesis,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 6. July-August 1978 pp 1991-2019. UNIX Time-Sharing System: The C Programming Language. (Ritchie, D.M.; Johnson, S.C.; Lesk, M.E.; Kernighan, B.W.)
Topics: array, language, pointer, function, compiler, variables, bcpl, programming, bell, expression, top...
Bell System Technical Journal, 9: 2. April 1930 pp 364-389. Economic Quality Control of Manufactured Product. (Shewhart, W.A.)
Topics: quality, variability, assignable, control, limits, journal, statistical, product, tensile,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 3: 2. April 1924 pp 259-267. A Reactance Theorem. (Foster, Ronald M.)
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Topics: reactance, impedance, resonant, network, formulas, networks, theorem, circuits, formula,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 46: 6. July-August 1967 pp 1055-1133. The Si-SiO2 Interface - Electrical Properties as Determined by the Metal-Insulator-Silicon Conductance Technique. (Nicollian, E.H.; Goetzberger, A.)
Topics: interface, bias, surface, density, capacitance, oxide, conductance, silicon, frequency, measured,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 39: 6. November 1960 pp 1381-1444. Signaling Systems for Control of Telephone Switching. (Breen, C.; Dahlbom, C.A.)
Topics: signaling, signal, systems, trunk, transmission, system, signals, switching, dial, pulsing, central...
Bell System Technical Journal, 49: 5. May-June 1970 pp 827-852. An Integral Charge Control Model of Bipolar Transistors. (Gummel, H.K.; Poon, H.C.)
Topics: base, collector, emitter, model, voltage, charge, parameters, current, capacitance, equation, bell...
Bell System Technical Journal, 28: 1. January 1949 pp 59-98. The Synthesis of Two Terminal Switching Circuits. (Shannon, Claude E.)
Topics: functions, variables, function, theorem, switching, network, elements, circuits, circuit,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 43: 4. July 1964 pp 1783-1809. Hollow Metallic and Dielectric Waveguides for Long Distance Optical Transmission and Lasers. (Marcatili, E.A.J.; Schmeltzer, R.A.)
Topics: modes, attenuation, dielectric, hollow, guide, curvature, optical, radius, mode, field, optical...
Bell System Technical Journal, 32: 2. March 1953 pp 406-424. A Study of Non-Blocking Switching Networks. (Clos, Charles)
Topics: crosspoints, array, switching, equation, intermediary, outputs, inputs, switches, switch, input,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 3. July 1948 pp 510-588. The Evolution of the Quartz Crystal Clock. (Marrison, Warren A.)
Topics: quartz, frequency, crystal, resonator, oscillator, clocks, pendulum, clock, bell, accuracy, quartz...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 1. January 1932 pp 126-147. Regeneration Theory. (Nyquist, H.)
Topics: integral, amplifier, values, expression, lim, curve, network, integration, regeneration, integrand,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 48: 9. November 1969 pp 2909-2947. Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings. (Kogelnik, Herwig)
Topics: holograms, grating, diffraction, gratings, equation, dielectric, wave, absorption, bragg, angular,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 1. January 1948 pp 58-82. Metallic Delay Lenses. (Kock, Winston E.)
Topics: lens, dielectric, lenses, metallic, delay, sphere, refraction, conducting, wavelength, dipole,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 1: 2. November 1922 pp 43-55. The Heaviside Operational Calculus. (Carson, John R.)
Topics: operational, solution, heaviside, equations, equation, formula, calculus, integral, asymptotic,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 48: 5. May-June 1969 pp 1421-1444. Microstrip Lines for Microwave Integrated Circuits. (Schneider, M.V.)
Topics: microstrip, dielectric, impedance, conductor, strip, transverse, ohm, attenuation, thickness,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 58: 1. January 1979 pp 15-41. Advanced Mobile Phone Service: The Cellular Concept. (MacDonald, V.H.)
Topics: cell, cellular, cells, mobile, site, channels, system, channel, directional, sites, cell radius,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 4: 4. October 1925 pp 685-761. Electric Circuit Theory and the Operational Calculus. (Carson, John R.)
Topics: operational, solution, equation, equations, heaviside, circuit, series, integral, theorem,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 3. July 1948 pp 446-472. Spectra of Quantized Signals. (Bennett, W.R.)
Topics: signal, frequency, quantizing, quantized, signals, band, distortion, sampling, input, spectra,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 41: 3. May 1962 pp 877-884. On Non-Computable Functions. (Rado, T.)
Topics: turing, computable, entries, valid, score, entry, machine, binary, binary turing, functions, bell...
Bell System Technical Journal, 29: 3. July 1950 pp 295-342. Principles and Applications of Waveguide Transmission. (Southworth, George C.)
Topics: wave, force, electric, transmission, waves, waveguide, lines, magnetic, vector, reflection,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 2: 3. July 1923 pp 101-111. Permalloy, A New Magnetic Material of Very High Permeability. (Arnold, H.D.; Elmen, G.W.)
Topics: permalloy, permeability, magnetic, cent, properties, magnetizing, alloys, nickel, alloy,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 40: 1. January 1961 pp 43-63. Prolate Spheroidal Wave Functions, Fourier Analysis and Uncertainty - I. (Slepian, D.; Pollak, H.O. 65-84)
Topics: functions, spheroidal, bandlimited, fourier, eigenvalues, interval, wave, prolate, equation,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 36: 6. November 1957 pp 1389-1401. Shortest Connection Networks And Some Generalizations. (Prim, R.C.)
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Topics: shortest, terminal, connection, network, labelled, terminals, spanning, subtree, fragment,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 5: 4. October 1926 pp 539-554. Wave Propagation in Overhead Wires with Ground Return. (Carson, John R.)
Topics: impedance, ground, propagation, mutual, wire, surface, formulas, axial, electric, wave, mutual...
Bell System Technical Journal, 19: 1. January 1940 pp 1-39. The Physical Basis of Ferromagnetism. (Bozorth, R.M.)
Topics: magnetic, magnetization, electrons, atoms, nickel, ferromagnetic, electron, atom, ferromagnetism,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 2: 1. January 1923 pp 1-46. Theory and Design of Uniform and Composite Electric Wave-filters. (Zobel, Otto J.)
Topics: impedance, impedances, transmitting, frequency, equivalent, frequencies, shunt, series, constant,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 39: 1. January 1960 pp 205-233. Solid Solubilities of Impurity Elements in Germanium and Silicon. (Trumbore, F.A.)
Topics: data, solid, solidus, curve, impurity, solubility, solubilities, germanium, silicon, crystals, bell...
Bell System Technical Journal, 17: 1. January 1938 pp 17-48. The Impedance Concept and its Application to Problems of Reflection, Refraction, Shielding and Power Absorption. (Schelkunoff, S.A.)
Topics: impedance, wave, waves, impedances, reflection, ratio, radial, transmission, field, characteristic,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 6: 1. January 1927 pp 1-17. Electromagnetic Theory and the Foundations of Electric Circuit Theory. (Carson, John R.)
Topics: equation, theory, equations, circuit, currents, electric, vector, electromagnetic, current,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 4: 3. July 1925 pp 349-354. Oliver Heaviside. (Gill, F.)
Topics: heaviside, inductance, waves, telegraph, oliver, coils, engineers, electrical, propagation,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 44: 5. May-June 1965 pp 823-870. Miniaturized RC Filters Using Phase-Locked Loop. (Moschytz, G.S.)
Topics: frequency, voltage, capture, filter, phase, bandwidth, vco, apll, loop, range, error voltage,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 31: 1. January 1952 pp 1-31. The Ferromagnetic Faraday Effect at Microwave Frequencies and its Applications: The Microwave Gyrator. (Hogan, C.L.)
Topics: magnetic, gyrator, ferromagnetic, field, wave, resonance, polarized, rotation, microwave, faraday,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 15: 1. January 1936 pp 92-112. Some Equivalence Theorems of Electromagnetics and Their Application to Radiation Problems. (Schelkunoff, S.A.)
Topics: magnetic, electric, current, equivalence, currents, sources, coaxial, field, tangential, radiated,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 33: 3. May 1954 pp 661-719. Coupled Wave Theory and Waveguide Applications. (Miller, S.E.)
Topics: coupling, wave, coupled, loss, transfer, phase, discrimination, waveguide, constants, mode, bell...
Bell System Technical Journal, 35: 6. November 1956 pp 1417-1444. Minimization of Boolean Functions. (McCluskey, E.J., Jr.)
Topics: rows, table, row, minimum, boolean, implicant, column, prime, crosses, sum, bell system, consistent...
Bell System Technical Journal, 1: 2. November 1922 pp 1-32. Physical Theory of the Electric Wave-Filter. (Campbell, George A.)
Topics: artificial, impedance, impedances, formulas, lattice, bands, frequencies, iterative, attenuation,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 6. July-August 1978 pp 1971-1990. UNIX Time-Sharing System: The UNIX Shell. (Bourne, S.R.)
Topics: command, unix, file, echo, procedure, output, string, commands, input, execution, null string,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 56: 5. May-June 1977 pp 703-718. Loss Analysis of Single-Mode Fiber Splices. (Marcuse, D.)
Topics: fiber, gaussian, fibers, field, transmission, parameter, splices, splice, width, mode, bell system,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 26: 3. July 1947 pp 460-681. Reflex Oscillators. (Pierce, J.R.; Shepherd, W.G.)
Topics: frequency, reflex, oscillator, voltage, resonator, power, electronic, repeller, drift, admittance,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 54: 8. October 1975 pp 1451-1462. Faster-Than-Nyquist Signaling. (Mazo, J.E.)
Topics: pulse, signaling, theorem, pulses, error, sequence, transform, fourier, bounds, linear, error rate,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 22: 1. January 1943 pp 80-107. A Mathematical Theory of Linear Arrays. (Schelkunoff, S.A.)
Topics: array, arrays, linear, elements, nulls, sin, null, radiation, amplitudes, equispaced, system...
Bell System Technical Journal, 48: 7. September 1969 pp 2071-2102. Dielectric Rectangular Waveguide and Directional Coupler for Integrated Optics. (Marcatili, E.A.J.)
Topics: modes, dielectric, guide, refractive, equations, propagation, coupling, guides, waveguide, field,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 41: 4. July 1962 pp 1295-1336. Prolate Spheroidal Wave Functions, Fourier Analysis and Uncertainty -- III: The Dimension of the Space of Essentially Time- and Band-Limited Signals. (Landau, H.J.; Pollak, H.O.)
Topics: theorem, functions, sin, spheroidal, function, fourier, prolate, lemma, wave, iii, upper half, unit...
Bell System Technical Journal, 47: 6. July-August 1968 pp 957-1000. A Statistical Theory of Mobile-Radio Reception. (Clarke, R.H.)
Topics: mobile, antenna, spectrum, frequency, signal, random, autocovariance, function, equation,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 38: 6 November 1959 pp 1551-1580. Some Design Considerations for High-Frequency Transistor Amplifiers (Thomas, D.E.)
Topics: transistor, amplifier, feedback, gain, impedance, emitter, circuit, common, input, amplifiers,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 4. October 1931 pp 656-683. Developments in Short-Wave Directive Antennas. (Bruce, E.)
Topics: antenna, antennas, directive, horizontal, wire, vertical, tilt, signal, directivity, wave, vertical...
Bell System Technical Journal, 22: 3. October 1943 pp 393-396. Electromagnetic Waves: Review of S. A. Schelkunoff's Book . (LeCorbeiller, P.)
Topics: wilh, impedance, wave, chapter, iht, ihc, nol, velocity, irom
Bell System Technical Journal, 31: 4 July 1952 pp 784-801. Generalized Telegraphist's Equations for Waveguides (Schelkunoff, S.A.)
Topics: equations, modes, generalized, waveguide, coupling, isotropic, grad, flux, waveguides,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 51: 5. May-June 1972 pp 955-1126. Where on the Moon? An Apollo Systems Engineering Problem. (Cappellari, J.O. Jr.)
Topics: lunar, apollo, landing, descent, trajectory, mission, launch, site, surface, spacecraft, launch...